What Is Type 1 Juvenile Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder of the immune system where it attacks the beta cells that makes it difficult to produce insulin. Excess sugar builds up in the blood stream and may eventually cause severe damage to liver, heart, vision, feet, and organs and premature death. Type 1 diabetes is generally diagnosed in children, teenagers, or young adults.

What Is The Cure?

There is no cure at this time for Type 1 diabetes.  Just stay healthy, eat healthy and exercise.

Eating well-balanced meals is an essential part of taking better care of yourself and managing diabetes. So is regular physical activity, which is especially important for people with diabetes and those at risk of Type 2 diabetes. Balancing what you eat and your physical activity are key to managing diabetes.

What Is Insulin?

Your body changes most of the food you eat into glucose, a type of sugar. Glucose travels in the blood to all the cells in your body. Insulin is a hormone made by your body to help glucose move from the blood into your body cells. Your body cells need glucose for energy.

Insulin is a protein chain or peptide hormone. Insulin comes from the beta cells that produce the hormone in the pancreas. Insulin is produced in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. It is the hormone needed to enable glucose to enter the cells and provide energy. Insulin is also important in keeping blood glucose levels within the acceptable limits and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. It causes cells in the liver, skeletal muscles, and fat tissue to absorb glucose from the blood.

The islets of Langerhans contain beta cells, which secrete insulin, and play a significant role in diabetes.

What Does Insulin Do?

Taking insulin when you need it helps control blood glucose levels, so your cells will have the energy they need to keep you feeling well. The insulin you take is working properly if it keeps your glucose levels near normal, provided you have eaten enough carbohydrates to produce the glucose your body needs.

Why Do I Have To Inject Insulin As A Diabetic?

The only way to get insulin into your body is to inject it with a syringe or a delivery system such as an insulin pen or pump. Insulin cannot be taken as a pill because it would be destroyed by the stomach during digestion. The good news is that the needles in syringes and other insulin delivery systems are short, very  fine, and easy to use.

What Was The First Insulin Made?

A preparation of insulin, either of porcine or bovine origin or a recombinant form with sequence the same as or similar to that in humans, used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus; classified as rapid-acting, intermediate-acting, or long-acting on the basis of speed of onset and duration of activity.

Known as regular insulin; a rapid-acting, unmodified form of insulin prepared from crystalline bovine or porcine insulin.  Pork and beef used to be used but has been discontinued in the U.S. market. Only Animal Insulin is made of animal pancreases, and that is sold to Veterinarians.

What Is Human Insulin?

Scientists learned that they could change the DNA of certain microbes and force the microbes to make insulin instead of some other chemical. This is called Recombinant DNA technology, or “rDNA.”

It was found that they could change the DNA of yeast, and instead of alcohol, they give off HUMAN INSULIN!

Once this was figured out, making insulin was very much like making beer. Take the DNA-changed yeast, feed them sugar, and let them eat and give off human insulin. After the sugar is consumed, kill the yeast, distill the insulin, and sell it!

Another microbe sometimes used is E-Coli.

A biosynthetic product manufactured from Escherichia coli by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology. The advantage of human insulin is that it eliminates allergic reactions that occur with the use of animal insulins.

By changing the DNA of the same microbe that causes food poisoning, the E.Coli gives HUMAN insulin, instead of dangerous toxic chemicals, . Same process: Feed the microbe, kill the microbe, distill the insulin, and you have insulin.

rDNA Technology is so stable and so common, that 100% of the human insulin made today is made using rDNA technology.

What is an Insulin Pump?

Insulin pump is a device used in the administration of insulin in the body of a patient for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

What Was The First Insulin Pump?

Arnold Kadish, a doctor from Los Angeles, California introduced the first insulin pump in the 1960’s. This first pump was so large it had to be carried in a specially designed backpack.

What is Yesterday's Insulin Pump?

An insulin pump is an external device that simulates how a human pancreas functions to deliver insulin. About 250,000 diabetics worldwide wear insulin pumps as an alternative to taking insulin shots.

The pump uses fast-acting insulin that flows through thin, flexible tubing connected to your body. You can connect the pump to different locations on your body, depending on your preferences and where you have been wearing it previously. As a pump user, you have the flexibility to select from the following locations: stomach, hips, outer thigh, buttocks and the back of your arms. But there are several new pumps available on the market today.

What Is Today's Insulin Pump?

Next Generation, Omni Pump

The OmniPod is made up of just two parts. The Pod holds and delivers insulin. The PDM (Personal Diabetes Manager) programs insulin delivery.

  • Easy to use
  • 34% smaller, 25% lighter and 16% slimmer Pod
  • No tubes to tangle
  • Waterproof Pod
  • Built-in blood glucose meter
  • Virtually pain-free insertion

Very nice and small. Easy to use.

What to do with needles, lancets, syringes and blood strips after you use them?

Disposal of syringes, needles and lancets is regulated and causes health hazards if not disposed of properly. These items are called “sharps.” They can carry hepatitis, HIV and other germs that cause disease. Tossing them into the trash or flushing them down the toilet can pose health risks for others. Regulations governing disposal of sharps protect garbage workers and the general public from needle sticks and illnesses. Safe and legal disposal of sharps depends on where you live; there are different regulations for different counties.

I have bought the sharps containers from the store to throw my son’s needles and blood strips away, but a pharmacist shared with me how to use a 2 liter soda bottle or any thick bottle that has a lid on it to dispose of needles, lancets and blood strips. The larger bottles are good for home use, but you could use a small juice bottle that you can carry in your backpack which is great for when you’re out and about. When full just throw it in the trash after you make sure the lid fits tightly, tape it shut for added safety, and add a “Warning Needles” label (see below for label printing). Do not label it Biohazard!

The Bureau of Land Management also gives contact information for other agencies that may regulate sharps disposal. If regulations require the sharps be disposed at a disposal station, the station staff will direct you to the proper disposal area. Never place loose sharps in the garbage. This is highly discouraged because of the injury and health risks it places on garbage haulers and processing facility workers. Here are some other ways that can be done for safe management and disposal of used sharps and never place containers with used needles or syringes in a recycling bin.

  1. Using a destruction device that incinerates needles and lancets can be used at home to destroy needles immediately after use. These small, portable devices use a few seconds of high heat to melt needles and reduce them to BB size balls. Previously used only in healthcare facilities, the devices are now available in smaller, less expensive models for home use. Once the needle or lancet is destroyed by heat in a destruction device, the remaining syringe and melted metal can be safely disposed of in the garbage (not the recycling container).
  2. The reason not to label household trash biohazard is because biohazard material is considered medical waste. To find out if your state allows sharps containers in the household trash contact your state waste department for specific regulations on household medical waste. Some medical waste facilities such as, clinics, physicians’ offices, EMT stations and hospitals have collection programs for needles, lancets, and syringes for use by their patients at home. If your healthcare provider has a collection program, learn about and follow their instructions for sharps storage and disposal.

Diabetic Resource LLC has free labels “Warning Needles” notification to put on your bottle to be disposed.

Diabetic Resource - Bottle Labels

Fill out the form below for a package of free labels:

Your Name (required)

Your Email (required)

Street Address (required)

City | State | Zip (required)

I hope this helps you realize the health risk involved with the disposal of sharps.

Sharps Bottles

What are Carbs?

Carbohydrates include foods composed of starches, sugar and/or fiber. They are the most common source of energy found in food. Most carbohydrates break down into glucose (a specific type of sugar).

What is Ketones?

A protein in the blood that spills into the urine.

Ketones are the result of the body burning fat for energy or fuel. For a person with diabetes, ketones are often the result of prolonged high blood sugar and insulin deficiency. Without the right amount of insulin, glucose starts to build up in the blood stream and doesn’t enter the cells. The cells burn fat instead of glucose, and ketones form in the blood and spill into the urine.

What is DKA?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy, such as when you have diabetes and do not get enough insulin. Without insulin, the body cannot use sugar for energy. When the cells do not receive sugar, the body begins to break down fat and muscle for energy. When this happens, ketones or fatty acids are produced and enter the bloodstream, causing the chemical imbalance (metabolic acidosis) called diabetic ketoacidosis.

What causes DKA?

Ketoacidosis in your urine can be caused by not getting enough insulin, having a severe infection or other illness, becoming severely dehydrated, or some combination of these things. It can occur in people who have little or no insulin in their bodies (mostly people with type 1 diabetes, but it can happen with type 2 diabetes) when their blood sugar levels are high.

An abnormal result may also be due to:

  • Abnormal food or nutrition intake due to:
    • Anorexia
    • Fasting
    • High protein or low carbohydrate diets
    • Starvation
    • Vomiting over a long period of time
  • Disorders of increased metabolism
  • Acute or severe illness
  • Burns
  • Fever
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Nursing a baby (lactation)
  • Pregnancy

What are the symptoms of DKA?

Your blood sugar may be quite high before you notice symptoms, which include:

  • Flushed, hot, dry skin.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Feeling thirsty.
  • Drowsiness or difficulty waking up. Young children may lack interest in their normal activities.
  • Rapid, deep breathing.
  • A strong, fruity breath odor.
  • Loss of appetite, belly pain, and vomiting.
  • Confusion.

When diabetic ketoacidosis is severe, you may have a hard time breathing, your brain may swell (cerebral edema), and there is a risk of coma and even death.

How is DKA diagnosed?

Use of Urine keto sticks are available for home use to test for ketones.  Keep some nearby in case your blood sugar level becomes high or you are not feeling well. Your blood sugar does not have to be High to have Ketoacidosis. Always test for Ketones when your child has blood sugar levels 250 or higher for 3 consecutive times; if tested positive recently, the ketones should be checked on the second high. Check when your child is sick or feeling ill. Check when your child is vomiting.

Laboratory tests, including blood and urine tests, are used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis.

How is DKA treated?

With small trace of ketone give your child fluid (electrolytes) – get them hydrated. Give them the appropriate amount of insulin adjustment if needed. If you are not sure on the amount of insulin adjustment call your doctor.

Check their ketones every hour to 2 hours and keep an eye on them. Remember the sooner you catch Ketone the easier it is to get rid of them.

When ketoacidosis is severe, it must be treated in the hospital, often in an intensive care unit. Treatment involves giving insulin and fluids through a vein and closely watching certain chemicals in the blood (electrolytes). It can take several days for your blood sugar level to return to a target range.

(Caution: Steam rooms, Jacuzzis, Saunas, can make you dehydrated, when not drinking enough water)

What is A1C ?

A1C is a blood test that the doctor takes every three months. It counts for the three month period of blood sugar level percentage that your doctor uses to assist in adjusting your insulin intake if required.

For most people with diabetes, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that your A1C should be under 7%.   A  1% point reduction in A1C lowers the risk of serious complications by 40% remember that your A1C is your “Big picture ” measurement. it is not to be used for daily blood glucose measurements.

If you have any questions about your A1C result, please contact you doctor or healthcare provider. Do not adjust your medication unless instructed to do so by your doctor or healthcare provider.

Why Not Have Sugar?

Specialist say you can have sugar because you can just take insulin for it. A splurge once in awhile is ok. But the healthier way is not to have sugar. Sugar is carbohydrates and it is a bad carbohydrate. Stay away from bad carbohydrates.  Unless your blood sugar level drops below your blood levels that are good for you. Everyone is different. Your Endocrinologist will let you know what your ratio levels are. The more carbohydrates you have the more insulin you have to have. So eat good carbohydrates, because your body does need some carbohydrates.  Try to keep your diet in check, for your health and your blood sugar levels.